Research of biologically active compounds of catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides Walt.)
Catalpa bignonioides Walt. (catalpa) the family Bignoniaceae – a tree, which originates from North America. Catalpa bark contains resins and tannins. Monoterpene glycosides were found in the leaf. Catalpa seeds contain up to 30% of eleostearic acid. Decoctions are made of the bark of the tree. They serve as a gastric agent and have an anthelmintic effect. Decoction of the bark exhibits bronchodilator action, is used in the complex treatment of cancer. The leaves are used to treat skin diseases. The infusion of fruits has anti-herpetic and hypoglycemic properties.
The aim of the work is to investigate biologically active compounds of the leaves of catalpa bignini.
The object of the study was the leaves of common catalpa harvested in the summer of 2018 in Sevastopol. Chemical identification reactions and methods of chromatographic analysis were used to determine the major groups of biologically active substances of the leaves of the catalpa (chromatographic paper Filtrak FN No. 4, Munktell, Czech Republic). Chromatography was performed in pre-selected solvent systems: n-butanol‒acetic acid‒water (BAW) (4:1:2) ‒ I direction and 15% acetic acid ‒ II direction. Identification reactions were performed with aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic extracts of catalpa leaves.
The qualitative composition of the phenolic compounds was investigated by paper chromatography. The content of the sum of phenolic compounds, hydroxycyclic acids and flavonoids was determined by the spectrophotometric method. Based on the held reactions and chromatographic analysis, by the characteristic fluorescence in the filtered UV light before and after treatment with chromogenic reagents and the values of Rf in the raw material the presence of the following groups of biologically active substances were determined: flavonoids, phenol glycosides, hydroxycoric acids. According to the chromatographic analysis, at least 9 substances of phenolic nature have been detected in the alcohol-aqueous extracts.
For the first time, the presence of the following groups of biologically active substances: hydroxycoric acids, phenologic glycosides, flavonoids was determined in the leaves of catalpa. Quantitative content of natural compounds in the leaves of common catalpa: the sum of phenolic compounds (4,76 ± 0,04%), of hydroxycoric acids (3,42 ± 0,02%), of flavonoids (1,88 ± 0,02%). The results of the study will be used in the development of the draft quality control methods for medicinal plant raw materials.
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