Medical and biological functions of water

Keywords: water, water-salt balance, dehydration, hyperhydration, rehydratation, micellar water, pharmacy, cosmetology


Water is the most common compound of hydrogen and oxygen in the nature. It is a universal solvent of many substances, and therefore chemically pure water does not exist in the nature. The water contained in the body is qualitatively different from ordinary water as it is structured water. Such crystalline structures of water are the matrix of life. Their presence gives possibility of the occurrence of important biophysical processes and biochemical reactions. Insufficient intake of water into the body or its excessive loss leads to dehydration, which is accompanied by thickening of the blood and impairing hemodynamics. Excessive intake of water into the body causes water intoxication.

Purpose to conduct a bibliosemantic analysis of the sources of the literature on the medical and biological functions of water.

Research methods bibliosemantic, analytical, logical methods and generalizion method.

Water is the structural basis of cells necessary to maintain their optimal volume. It determines the spatial structure and function of biomolecules. Insufficient intake of water into the body or its excessive loss leads to an impaired hemodynamics. Excessive intake of water into the body causes water intoxication. All disoders of water-salt balance in the body can be divided into two groups: dehydration and hyperhydration. In each group, there are disorders with a decrease, increase, and no change in osmotic pressure (hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic disorders, respectively). Water is used in medical and pharmaceutical practice as an excipient, and for the manufacture of allopathic, homeopathic and anthroposophic medicines. The State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine includes several articles on the use of water depending on the purpose and regulates water quality: 1) highly purified water, water for injections «in bulk» water and sterilised water for injections; 2) purified water: water «in bulk» and water in containers. Cosmetics are presented on the Ukrainian market, the main biologically active compound of which is water, in particular, natural, thermal and micellar. They are widely used in cosmetology.

The biomedical function of water in the body is to preserve cell volume, provide turgor to the cells and save the body from temperature fluctuations. Disruption of water-salt balance leads to dehydration or hyperhydration. There are changes with a decrease, increase, and no change in osmotic pressure (hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic disorders, respectively). They cause disruption of the life of the whole organism. In pharmaceutical practice, water is widely used for the manufacture of allopathic, homeopathic and anthroposophic medicines. It can be obtained in various ways, but its quality is regulated by the relevant government regulations. In cosmetic practice, water is used not only as a basic solvent, but in the form of natural, micellar and thermal water, where it is a biologically active compound.


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How to Cite
Korytniuk, R. S., Davtian, L. L., Hudz, N. I., Drozdova, A. A., VlasenkoI. О., Leleka, M. V., & Olifirova, T. F. (2019). Medical and biological functions of water. Farmatsevtychnyi Zhurnal, (3), 65-75.
Pharmaceutical technology