Anatomical structure of the leaves and flowers оf primrose (Primula veris L.)

  • S. M. Marchyshyn SHEI «Horbachevsky Ternopil State Medical University of Ministry of Health Care of Ukraine»
  • L. H. Shostak SHEI «Horbachevsky Ternopil State Medical University of Ministry of Health Care of Ukraine»
Keywords: primroses, leaves, flowers, anatomical structure


Primula (Primula veris L., Primula officinalis Hill.) is a perennial herbaceous plant with a short rhizome and threadlike roots. The leaves are radical, oblong-ovate, wrinkled. The flowers are regular, bright yellow, located on the leafless flower-stock, forming the drooping umbel inflorescence. Fruit is an ovoid capsule. Primula has a significant recourse value.

The plant has long been known in a folk medicine. It’s used also in scientific medical practice. The rhizome with roots, leaves and flowers are used for treatment purposes.

The rhizomes with roots are used as an expectorant, the flowers – for migraine, nervousness and insomnia, tachycardia; the leaves – for hypo-and avitaminosis of the vitamin C.

The aim of our research was to investigate the anatomical structure of the leaves and flowers of Primula and determine their diagnostic features. Microscopic analysis was performed by the microscope «Granum». Photomicrography was made by the camera Sony DSC-W80.

Leaf. The petiole is long, winged. On the cross section from the lower side of the petiole there are oblong emergences, the upper side is smooth. The central vascular bundle is big of horseshoe shape. The winged emergences contain small bundles.

The leaf is isolateral consists of a homogeneous spongy mesophyll.

Upper epidermal cells of the leaf are parenchymal with the thin strongly sinuous membranes; lower epidermis consists of parenchymal sinuous cells. The stomata are large, oval, locate on the both sides. They predominate on the lower epidermis. The type of stomata is anomocytic. The idioblast cells with mucus present among the epidermal cells.

The leaf blade and petiole are densely pubescent with the glandular hairs. They predominate on the lower side.

Flower. The cells of the inner epidermal from the cloves of sepal are small, parenchymal, narrow, with slightly sinuous membranes. The lower cells are large, sinuous. Stomata present rare. The epidermis are covered with cuticle. The cells of sepal contain a lot of mucous cells. The sepals are pubescent with glandular hairs.

The inner epidermis of the base of corolla tube consists of the parenchymal, small cells of irregular shape with straight-wall membranes.

As a result of the microscopic analysis it has been established the main diagnostic anatomic features of the leaves and flowers of Primula. These results will be used for the identification of new medicinal plant materials.


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How to Cite
Marchyshyn, S. M., & Shostak, L. H. (2019). Anatomical structure of the leaves and flowers оf primrose (Primula veris L.). Farmatsevtychnyi Zhurnal, (6), 69-76. Retrieved from
Pharmacological, phytochemical research