Analysis of consumption trends of antibacterial and antivirus medicines in pharmacies during COVID-19 pandemic in Ukraine

Keywords: coronavirus infection, COVID-19 pandemic, antibacterial medicines, antiviral medicines, pharmacoeconomic analysis, pharmacist survey, pharmacist protocol, side effects, antibiotic resistance

Abstract

Rational pharmacotherapy of COVID-19 in the world, treatment protocols, prescriptions of antibacterial (AB), antiviral (AV) medicines have been systematically improved due to updated data of evidence-based medicine.

The study aim was to analyze the trends of  AB, AV consumption for outpatients with confirmed COVID-19: to study the reasons of the growing demand for AB, AV; optimization of pharmaceutical care directions for rational cost-effectiveness use, prevention antibiotic resistance.

Methods the survey on consumption trends of AB and AV, side effects of AB; survey data of 205 pharmacists, 5 regions of Ukraine; pharmacoeconomic analysis «cost-minimization», content analysis of instructions, side effects.

Analysis of surveys showed that the demand on AB, AV increased by 50.1% to 2019, such groups: beta-lactams, respiratory fluoroquinolones, macrolides. We found the most often were released: azithromycin, cefoperazone, cefipime, piperacillin with tazobactam, meropenem.

Pharmacists noted that patients often used AB, AV without a prescriptions, it complicates the release from pharmacies. So it is necessary to implement e-prescriptions for AB, AV for monitoring of effectiveness, side effects, to prevent antibiotic resistance in pandemic.

We found 53.7% of pharmacists noted about insufficient of  trade names, stocks of AB and AV. It is the difficulties to provide outpatients with covid-19.

Content-analysis data showed the most common side effects during AB course. We identified the main directions of information pharmacist providing to prevent side effects, antibiotic resistance.

We conducted the demand for AV, AV medicines increased by 50.1% vs to 2019. It was identified the AB groups, trade names in high demand. Used pharmacoeconomic analysis «cost-minimization», we established that depending on the manufacturer, an antibiotic course costs differ by 15.1 times. The necessity of including in the list of the reimbursement program «Affordable Medicines» the essential AB, AV, to reduce costs for COVID-19 outpatients was substantiated.

We showed 83,1% of pharmacists consider the need of approval, implementation of «Protocol for symptomatic treatment of uncomplicated forms of COVID-19». It will improve the results of pharmaceutical care for COVID-19 patients due to GPP requirements.

References

Zakhvoriuvanist na koronavirus u riznykh krainakh stanom na 26. 04. 2021 roku. URL: https://index.minfin.com.ua/reference/coronavirus/geography/

World Health Organization. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: implications for infection prevention precautions – scientific brief. – 2020. URL: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/modes-of-transmission-of-virus-causing-covid-19-implications-for-ipc-precaution-recommendations

COVID-19 Clinical management: living guidance. 25 January 2021. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-clinical-2021-1

Antibiotic use in the COVID-19 crisis in Spain. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.09.055

Rekomendatsii dlia likariv, yaki pryznachaiut antybiotyky ambulatornym patsiientam. URL: https://www.apteka.ua/article/582041

Preventing the COVID-19 pandemic from causing an antibiotic resistance catastrophe. 2020. URL: https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/disease-prevention/antimicrobial-resistance/news/news/2020/11/preventing-the-covid-19-pandemic-from-causing-an-antibiotic-resistance-catastrophe

Zaliska O. M., Semenov O. M., Maksymovych N. M. ta in. Doslidzhennia roli provizora u zabezpechen karantynnykh zakhodiv pid chas pandemii COVID-19 // Farmats. zhurn. – 2020. – Т. 75, № 6. – S. 16–25. https://doi.org/10.32352/0367-3057.6.20.02

Roberton T., Carter E. D., Chou V. B. et al. Early estimates of the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal and child mortality in low-income and middle-income countries: a modelling study // Lancet. Global Health. – 2020. – V. 8, Is. 7. – P. 901–908. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30229-1

World Health Organization‎. Clinical management of COVID-19: interim guidance, 27 May 2020. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/332196

Chedid M., Waked R., Haddad E. et al. Antibiotics in treatment of COVID-19 complications: a review of frequency, indications, and efficacy // J. Infection and Public Health. – 2021. – V. 14, Is. 5. – P. 570–657. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2021.02.001

Nakaz MOZ Ukrainy vid 31. 12. 2020 № 3094 «Pro vnesennia zmin do protokolu "Nadannia medychnoi dopomohy dlia likuvannia koronavirusnoi khvoroby (COVID-19)"» URL: https://moz.gov.ua/article/ministry-mandates/nakaz-moz-ukraini-vid-31122020--3094-pro-vnesennja-zmin-do-protokolu--nadannja-medichnoi-dopomogi-dlja-likuvannja--koronavirusnoi-hvorobi-covid-19

Remdesivir v protokol likuvannia COVID-19 vkliuchenyi. Ale efektyvnist ne dovedena // Vashe zdorovia. – 2020. – 17 lystopada 2020. URL: https://www.vz.kiev.ua/remdesivir-v-protokol-likuvannya-covid-19-vklyuchenyj-ale-efektyvnist-ne-dovedena/

Nakaz MOZ Ukrainy vid 09. 11. 2020 № 2570 «Pro Rozpodil likarskoho zasobu za mizhnarodnoiu nepatentovanoiu nazvoiu "remdesevir" (remdesyvir)». URL: https://moz.gov.ua/article/ministry-mandates/nakaz-moz-ukraini-vid-09112020--2570-pro-rozpodil-likarskogo-zasobu-za-mizhnarodnoju-nepatentovanoju-nazvoju-remdesevir-remdesivir-zakuplenogo-za-koshti-derzhavnogo-bjudzhetu-ukraini-na-2020-rik

Nakaz MOZ Ukrainy vid 31. 12. 2020 № 3094 «Pro vnesennia zmin do protokolu "Nadannia medychnoi dopomohy dlia likuvannia koronavirusnoi khvoroby (COVID-19)"» URL: https://moz.gov.ua/article/ministry-mandates/nakaz-moz-ukraini-vid-31122020--3094-pro-vnesennja-zmin-do-protokolu--nadannja-medichnoi-dopomogi-dlja-likuvannja--koronavirusnoi-hvorobi-covid-19

Nakaz MOZ Ukrainy vid 11. 10. 2013 № 875 «Pro zatverdzhennia protokoliv provizora (farmatsevta)». URL: https://ліки.укр/mynysterstvo % 20ohorony/nakazy-moz/ moz875.html

Published
2021-08-26
How to Cite
Zaliska, O. M., Semenov, O. M., Maksymovych, N. M., Zabolotnya, Z. O., Zalisky, B. M., & Mudrak, I. H. (2021). Analysis of consumption trends of antibacterial and antivirus medicines in pharmacies during COVID-19 pandemic in Ukraine. Farmatsevtychnyi Zhurnal, (4), 43-54. https://doi.org/10.32352/0367-3057.4.21.04
Section
Pharmacoeconomics

Most read articles by the same author(s)

<< < 1 2