Integrated use of the bark of spindle tree (Euonymus europaea L.). investigation of lipophilic substances
The bark and fruit of European spindle tree (Euonymus europaea L.) has long been used in folk medicine as an anthelmintic, anti-insecticide, as well as for treatment ringworm and eczema. However, what substances responsible for these actions is not known. Purpose of this studies is to develop a comprehensive recycling scheme bark of European spindle tree and investigation of lipophilic substances.
The scheme of extraction of water soluble lectins and substances soluble in ethanol and chloroform from the bark of Euonymus europaea was developed. The ethanol and chloroform extracts were evaporated and then dissolved in methanol, and the composition of the obtained extracts was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It is found that at the extraction of the bark by means of etanol, extracted substances were 4.12%, whereas in the preparation of ethanol extract of the pomace of the bark after the extraction of lectins 2.86% alcohol soluble components were obtained. Reducing the amount of ethanol extractable substances due to the loss of water-soluble compounds which are primarily carbohydrates, that were ascertained by analysis of the appropriate fractions. In the the ethanol extract of pomace of the bark the higher fatty acids and their esters (22.61%), terpene and steroid substances (≈ 30%), a derivative 8H-cyclopenta [b] naphthalene (21.74%) and some unidentified materials were detected by GC–MS . The part of the ethanol extract which was insoluble in 95% ethanol, but soluble in methanol, contained mostly carbohydrates and their derivatives which are not of interest to medicine. The pomace after extraction by means of ethanol was dried and extracted by means of chloroform. In the chloroform extract paraffinic hydrocarbons (36.95%) and their derivatives (3.65%), triterpene compounds (24.32%), phthalates (6.57%), higher fatty acids and their esters (5.64%) and ≈ 22% of substances with a low degree of identification were detected by GC–MS. The extraction of the residue with methanol failed to completely separate the medically valuable triterpene compounds from paraffinic hydrocarbons, which indicates the necessity of application for this purpose silica gel column chromatography using as eluent chloroform-alcohol mixtures in various ratios.
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