Study of morphological and anatomical features of Betonica L. genus species

  • I. A. Sas SHEE «Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University»
  • A. R. Grytsyk SHEE «Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University»
  • M. V. Melnyk SHEE «Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University»
Keywords: Betonica L. genus species, morphological and anatomical features, leaves, stem, flowers, petiole


An important step in the development of quality control methods of medicinal plants is their morphological and anatomical study. It is especially important to investigate the taxonomically close species, to identify main differences between them and to establish diagnostic morphological and anatomical features of each type of raw material.

The aim of the work was to study the morphological and anatomical structure of leaves, flowers and stems of Betonica peraucta L. and Betonica brachydonta L.

The object of the study was herb of Betonica peraucta L. and Betonica brachydonta L. harvested during flowering (June–July) on the territory of Ivano-Frankivsk region in 2013–2014 years.

The study of macro- and microscopic features of the raw material was carried out according to the procedures, described in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine.

Following macroscopic features were identified: stem is erect, simple or low-branched, 20–80 cm height. The leaves are opposite, simple, elongated ovate, crenate, obtuse, cordate at base; radical leaves are rosulate and long-petiolate, stem leaves are sessile. Flowers are zygomorphic, purple, collected in approximated rings, forming a dense spicate inflorescence.

The basic microscopic features of the aerial parts of Betonica L. species were studied. Stem: the epidermis cells are with straight walls, elongated in the tangential direction; stomata are of diacytic type; hairs are simple multicellular and capitate. The difference between the species is the degree of pubescence of the stem and type of hairs. For leaf plate the cells of the upper and lower epidermis with sinuous walls, diacytic type of stomata, hairs and essential-oil glands are characteristic. Flower petals: the upper epidermis cells are with straight walls, the lower epidermis cells are with slightly sinuous walls; stomata of diacytic type are placed only on the lower epidermis; simple hairs have 2–4 cells; essential oil glands have 8 cells.

Identified basic morphological and anatomical diagnostic features of Betonica L. species were used in the development of methods of medicinal plant raw materials quality control.


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How to Cite
Sas, I. A., Grytsyk, A. R., & Melnyk, M. V. (2018). Study of morphological and anatomical features of Betonica L. genus species. Farmatsevtychnyi Zhurnal, (3-4), 70-75. Retrieved from
Pharmacological, phytochemical research

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